Wednesday, January 2, 2008

חציו ולפנים של בעל הבית (Bava Metzia 26a)

What is the case? What does the בעל הבית say? The Rambam writes explicitly (גזילה ואבידה ט"ז הל' י"א-י"ב) that the בעל הבית gets it if he says that it his, however, if he says that it is a מציעה then finders keepers even if חציו ובפנים. Here is the language of the Rambam (which is quoted in Shulcahn Aruch Siman ר"ס)

יא [ט] מצא מטמון בכותל חדש--אם המטמון מוכיח שהוא לבעל הבית, הרי הוא שלו; ואם מוכיח שהוא לאחד מן השוק, הרי הוא של מוצאו. כיצד: הסכין, הרי הניצב שלו מוכיח; והכיס, פיו מוכיח. ואם נמצא תוך הכותל מלא מהן, חולקין.

יב [י] היו בתוך הכותל מעות או לשונות של זהב, שאין שם מוכיח--מחצייו ולחוץ, של מוצא; מחצייו ולפנים, של בעל הבית. [יא] וייראה לי שאין הדברים אמורים, אלא בשטען בעל הבית שהמטמון שלו, או שהיה יורש שאנו טוענין לו שמא של אביו הן; אבל אם הודה שהן מציאה, הרי הן של מוצאן.


This makes the case of where the object fills up the whole hole very difficult. In that case, the din is חולקים. It must be that the בעל הבית is claiming that it is his, otherwise for sure it would go the finder (after all even by חציו ובפנים the finder keeps it if the בעל הבית doesn't claim it as his). If so, why יחלוקו? The בעל הבית is saying it is mine, the finder is not challenging that claim, his claim that he found it should be irrelevant, he found the בעל הבית's object that was not lost. R' Akiva Eiger asks a similar question on the din on חולקים and leaves it וצ"ע.

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